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  •  现代农业的土壤问题_科普知识_河北愿景化肥有限公司
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    现代农业的土壤问题

    2017-05-05

      近三十年来由于满足不断增长的人口的需要,解决粮食安全问题,大量过量的肥料投入到土壤中,出少数被作物吸收、淋失和挥发外,其余大部分都残留在土壤中,长期积累造成土壤质量下降,土壤盐渍化,土壤板结。此外,现在生产中大型机械的利用,长期的碾压造成土壤表层、亚表层土壤结构发生变化,土壤团粒结构遭到破坏,土壤发生板结。
      首先,大田作物产区。由以前的人畜式精耕细作转向了大机械化的粗放化管理,返青小麦不松土、夏玉米抢种不耕地、除草剂及化肥过量使用、大型机械反复碾压形成土壤犁底层,改变土壤的通透性,造成土壤板结和污染。犁底层又称"亚表土层",是位于耕作层以下较为紧实的土层,由于长期耕作经常受到犁的挤压和降水时黏粒随水沉积所致。一般离地表12—18厘米,厚约5—7厘米,最厚可达到20cm。对耕作土壤来说,具有不太厚犁底层对保持养分,保存水分还是非常有益的。但是犁底层过厚(20cm)、坚实,对物质的转移和能量的传递,作物根系下伸,通气透水都非常不利的,这种情况必须采取深翻或深松办法,改造、消除犁底层。
      其次,经济作物产区,尤其是大棚区。因过量施用化肥、农业调节剂,对土壤带来的破坏和污染,尤其是干旱及采用节水灌溉的地区,因水资源短缺导致化学养分不能被作物充分吸收,也不能随大水溶解流走,遗留在土壤中对土壤造成严重污染和破坏。例如:大棚内养分大量存留,土壤产生盐渍化,原因包括:
      大棚内的土壤,因不受降雨条件的影响,土壤中的盐分不能随雨水流失或淋溶到土壤深层中去而残留在土壤耕层内。
      大棚栽培,由于灌水次数频繁,使土壤的团粒结构遭到破坏,大孔隙减少,通透性变差,盐分不能渗透到土壤深层、水分蒸发后使盐分积累下来。
      地势低洼,土壤湿度大,土壤表层积聚了大量的盐分,使土壤板结、盐渍化。
      化肥施用量过大,使土壤含盐量增加,特别是硝酸铵等施用量过大,更容易造成大棚土壤盐渍化、板结,使大棚土壤通透性下降。
      生施人畜粪尿。由于大棚的温度高,人畜粪尿迅速挥发分解后,大量的氨被挥发掉,使一些硫化物、硫酸盐、有机盐和无机盐残留于耕层土壤内,造成大棚土壤板结,盐渍化。
      因以上原因造成当前土壤板结、酸碱失衡、可吸收有机质匮乏、激素残留超标、土传致病菌较多和土壤盐渍化,并且大大降低了中微量元素的利用率,严重制约作物的健康成长。

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